The main stages in the study of representatives of the Shrike family on the territory of the Middle Volga region, starting from the 18th century, are considered.
Text of the scientific work on the topic "History of the study of shrikes in the Middle Volga region"
Issue 18.2017 References
Balashev L.S., Parakhonskaya N.A. Verification of the classification belonging of phytocenoses of sphagnum bogs using quantitative methods // Types of bogs of the USSR and the principles of their classification. L .: Nauka, 1974.S. 120-127.
Bradis E.M. Vegetation cover of bogs as an indicator of their type according to nutritional conditions // Basic principles of studying bog biogeocenoses. L .: Nauka, 1972.S. 29-38.
Bradis E.M., Andrienko T.L. Eutrophic and mesotrophic sphagnum bogs of the Ukrainian SSR // Types of bogs in the USSR and the principles of their classification. L .: Nauka, 1974.S. 115-120.
Grishutkin O.G. The area and territorial distribution of bogs in the Mordovian state natural reserve // Proceedings of the Mordovian state nature reserve im. P.G. Smidovich. 2011. Issue. 9, pp. 280-281.
Grishutkin O.G. The impact of 2010 fires on the bog ecosystems of the Mordovian State Natural Reserve // Proceedings of the Mordovian State Natural Reserve named after P.G. Smidovich. 2012. Issue. 10.S. 261-265.
Grishutkin O.G. Regularities of the distribution of bogs depending on the absolute elevations of the relief on the territory of the Mordovian State Natural Reserve // Proceedings of the Mordovian State Natural Reserve named after V.I. P.G. Smidovi-cha. 2013. Issue. 11, pp. 259-263.
Kuznetsov N.I. Vegetation of the Mordovian State Reserve // Proceedings of the Mordovian State Reserve im. P.G. Smidovich. 1960. Issue. 1.S. 129-220.
Kuznetsov O.L. Flora and vegetation of the bogs of Karelia // Bog ecosystems of the north of Europe: diversity, dynamics, carbon balance, resources and protection. Petrozavodsk, 2006.S. 145-159.
Kuznetsov O.L. The main methods of classification of bog vegetation // Bog vegetation: modern problems of classification, mapping, use and protection. Minsk: Law and Economics, 2009.S. 24-33.
Tereshkin I.S., Tereshkina L.V. Vegetation of the Mordovian nature reserve. Consecutive rows of succession // Proceedings of the Mordovian State Natural Reserve named after P.G. Smidovich. 2006. Issue. 7, pp. 186-304.
THE HISTORY OF THE STUDY OF THE FORTY IN THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
Mordovian State Natural Reserve named after P.G. Smidovich
The main stages in the study of representatives of the Shrike family on the territory of the Middle Volga region, starting from the 18th century, are considered. Key words: Laniidae, shrike, history of study.
Shrikes of the family Laniidae are a very peculiar group of songbirds. These are the only representatives of the order Passeriformes, which are characterized by the consumption of small vertebrates, although the basis of food for them is large insects. The specificity of the shrike's behavior is the pricking of prey on thorns and sharp knots for eating or storing for future use. Birds get food by hunting from the perch - they sit on some high object (tree, bush, pole) and when they find prey, they dive at it. This behavior determined the confinement of shrikes to
Works of the Mordovian State Natural Reserve named after P.G.Smidovich
covered places - shrub floodplain, edges and clearings of forests, both deciduous and coniferous, wastelands, gardens, young forest plantations, shrub thickets of ravines and along roads.
The Shrike family includes 33 species in three genera (Panov, 2008): Genus Lanius - Sorokoputy
Lanius tigrinus (Drapiez, 1834) - Tiger shrike Lanius bucephalus (Temminck et Schlegel, 1847) - Japanese shrike Lanius collurio (Linnaeus, 1758) - Common (European) shrike Lanius phoenicuroides (Schalow, 1875) - Turkestan shrike Ehrenberg, 1828) - Bucky (Red-tailed) Shrike
Lanius cristatus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Siberian shrike
Lanius collurioides (Lesson, 1834) - Burmese Shrike
Lanius gubernator (Hartlaub, 1882) - Governor Shrike
Lanius souzae (Barbosa du Bocage, 1878) - Red-backed Shrike
Lanius vittatus (Valenciennes, 1826) - Indian Shrike
Lanius schach (Linnaeus, 1758) - Long-tailed shrike
Lanius tephronotus (Vigors, 1831) - Tibetan shrike
Lanius validirostris (Ogilvie-Grant, 1894) - Philippine shrike
Lanius minor (Gmelin, 1788) - Black-fronted shrike
Lanius ludovicianus (Linnaeus, 1766) - American shrike
Lanius excubitor (Linnaeus, 1758) - Great Gray Shrike
Lanius meridionalis (Temminck, 1820) - Desert Shrike
Lanius sphenocercus (Cabanis, 1873) - Wedge-tailed shrike
Lanius excubitoroides (Prévost & Des Murs, 1847) - Gray-shouldered shrike
Lanius cabanisi (Hartert, 1906) - Gray-backed Shrike
Lanius dorsalis (Cabanis, 1878) - Piebald shrike
Lanius somalicus (Hartlaub, 1859) - Somali shrike
Lanius mackinnoni (Sharpe, 1891) - White-browed shrike
Lanius collaris (Linnaeus, 1766) - Shrike-prosecutor
Lanius newtoni (Barboza du Bocage, 1891) - Newton's Shrike
Lanius marwitzi (Reichenow, 1901)
Lanius senator (Linnaeus, 1758) - Red-headed shrike Lanius nubicus (Lichtenstein, 1823) - Masked shrike Lanius pallidirostris (Cassin, 1851) Genus Corvinella - Common shrike
Corvinella corvina (Lesson, 1831) - Yellow-billed Shrike Urolestes melanoleucus (Jardine, 1831) - Great Shrike Genus Eurocephalus - White-capped Shrike
Eurocephalus rueppelli (Bonaparte, 1853) - Rüppel's white-capped shrike
Eurocephalus anguitimens (Smith, A, 1836) - Common white-headed shrike
However, systematic ornithologists still do not have a consensus regarding the taxonomic status of many forms of shrike, as a result of which the number of species in the genus Lanius cannot be determined quite unambiguously today.
Nine species nest on the territory of Russia - Japanese, brindle, red-headed, black-faced, gray and wedge-tailed shrikes, red-tailed, common and Siberian shrikes.
In the Middle Volga region, 3 species of the family Laniidae have been recorded. The Common Shrike (Lanius collurio) is a common breeding species and is the most common member of the family in the region. The gray shrike (Lanius excubitor) is a rare breeding, occasionally wintering species. The southern border of its nesting area runs along the Middle Volga region. The black-fronted shrike (Lanius minor) has the status of a very rare breeding species in the Middle Volga region. The region has the northern border of its range.
Descriptions of the first shrike appeared in the works of Carl Linnaeus. It was Linnaeus who suggested the generic name Lanius (Latin Lanius - "butcher", "executioner", "sacrificing"). This name reflects the peculiarity of the behavior of the shrike - tearing the caught prey into pieces for eating after fixation on a thorn or a sharp branch. Karl Linnaeus established the following species in the genus Lanius proposed by him: Lanius cristatus (+ subspecies), L. excubitor, L. ludovicianus, L. collurio, L. collaris, L. schach and L. lucioniensis. The black-faced shrike (Lanius minor) was first described by the German scientist Johann Friedrich Gmelin. The bird is described from Italy, but I.F. Gmelin also pointed out that similar birds live in Spain and Russia.
The beginning of scientific zoological research on the territory of the present Middle Volga region was laid in 1768-1769. a complex academic expedition led by academician of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, professor of natural history Peter Simon Pallas and associate of the Academy Ivan Ivanovich Lepekhin. Descriptions of new species, travel diaries of scientists were published in the publications of the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Sciences, and then summarized with the materials of other travels and were repeatedly published and republished in the late 18th - early 19th centuries. P.S. Pallas in his classic work - "Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica" describes four species of shrikes (Lanius major, L. vigil, L. phoencurus, L. brachyurus) and gives two already described by that time - common shrike and gray shrike, as well as gives a more extensive description of the black-fronted shrike than that of I.F. Gmelin also specifying its habitat.
In the second half of the XIX century. Modest Nikolaevich Bogdanov begins to engage in ornithological research in the Middle Volga region. In 1868-1870. he made long journeys from Kazan to Astrakhan. In 1871, on the basis of his ten-year research on the fauna of Po-
Works of the Mordovian State Natural Reserve named after P.G.Smidovich
Volzhya M.N. Bogdanov published the book "Birds and Animals of the Black Earth Belt of the Volga Region and the Valley of the Middle and Lower Volga". He collected a lot of factual material included in the book during 1860-1866. in his native Syzran district (now it is the Barysh district and some southern districts of the Ulyanovsk region, as well as the Syzran district of the Samara region, including the Zhiguli). In 1871 Bogdanov visited the Caucasus, and in 1873-1874. Central Asia. Based on the results of these and previous expeditions, he publishes the work "Russian shrikes and their relatives", where he presents extensive materials on the morphology and distribution of shrikes inhabiting the territory of the Russian Empire (including species inhabiting the territory of the Middle Volga region).In particular, he provides an extended description of various subspecies of the common shrike (Lanius excubitor).
Throughout the XX century. For a long time, no one specially studied the representatives of the Shrike family in the Middle Volga region, and the materials on the birds of this family in most cases were obtained in parallel with other studies and are presented fragmentarily. In Mordovia, the entire amount of data on the species of the Shrike family for a long period of time was reflected in the monograph by Aleksey Evgenievich Lugovoi "Birds of Mordovia" in 1975. The book contains information on the phenology of the common shrike, as well as nidological and oological materials on this species. In addition, the monograph contains data on encounters of gray and black-faced shrikes on the territory of the republic.
Of the relatively recent major works on representatives of the family Shrike (Laniidae), it is worth noting the monograph by Evgeny Nikolaevich Panov, published in 2008, "Shrikes of the world fauna. Ecology, behavior, evolution ”. It provides a complete description of the species of the Soro-Coput family in the scope of the world fauna. In the book, the author gives an overview of the latest information at that time on all aspects of the biology of representatives of the family.
At the moment of the last decade, the most active specialized studies of species of the family Shrike (Laniidae) have been and are being carried out in the territory of the Ciscaucasia, in particular, in the Stavropol Territory. Representatives of the family are also actively studied on the territory of Ukraine (Taikova, 2016). Materials on the study of shrikes in the Middle Volga region, including on the territory of the Republic of Mordovia, are presented in insufficient quantities for a comprehensive description of the biology of these species in the region. Therefore, active research of members of the Laniidae family in the region is urgently needed. They will make it possible to find out the status of each species on the territory of the Middle Volga region, to determine the most characteristic habitats of shrike, to reveal the abundance and its dynamics for representatives of the family, especially rare species. Constant long-term observations of shrike will make it possible to clarify the phenology of these species on the territory of the regions of the Middle Volga region, as well as to analyze the influence of various environmental factors, including anthropogenic ones, on the state of populations of representatives of the family.
Issue 18.2017 References
Baryshnikova E.M. Comparative ecology of shrikes in the Stavropol Territory: abstract of dis. for a job. learned. step. Cand. biol. sciences. Moscow, 2013.23 p.
Bogdanov M.N. Birds and animals of the black earth belt of the Volga region and the valley of the Middle and Lower Volga // Proceedings of the Society of Naturalists at the Imperial Kazan University. T. I. Kazan, 1871.226 p.
Bogdanov M.N. Shrikes of the Russian fauna and their relatives // Notes of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. Appendix to t. 39. 1881. No. 1.
Lugovoi A.E. Birds of Mordovia. Bitter. ped. in-t. Gorky, 1975.300 p.
Panov E.N. Shrikes (family Laniidae) of the world fauna. Ecology, behavior, evolution. M .: KMK Scientific Publishing Association. 2008.650 s.
Taikova S.Yu. Shrikes (Aves: Laniidae, Lanius) of the fauna of Ukraine (taxonomy, variability, distribution): dis. for a job. learned. step. Cand. biol. sciences. Kiev, 2016.254 p.
ON THE PROBLEM OF ESTABLISHING THE BOUNDARIES OF THE WINTER SEASON ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE NERUSSO-DESNYANSK POLESYA (BRYANSK REGION)
FSBI "Reserve" Bryansk Forest "e-mail: [email protected]
The formation of a stable snow cover serves as the main phenological criterion for identifying the boundary of the coldest season. However, in the Nerusso-Desnyansky woodland (southeast of the Bryansk region), this criterion does not work in years with a mild winter season (in 30% of the observed winters). It also makes it difficult to distinguish a day with persistent frosts. The use of a mathematical approach for identifying the phenological boundaries of the winter season and its subseasons is shown. Using the accumulated sums of the difference between the actual temperature and the setpoint allows you to objectively establish the transition date.Key words: border of the winter season, sub-season "Deep Winter".
The winter season has well-defined distinctive features such as the frosty period and the white aspect of the solid snow cover. In phenology, the temperature criterion is usually used, when the boundaries of the beginning and end of winter are determined by the date of the transition of the maximum air temperature through 0 ° C. If the temperature repeatedly crosses the zero mark both at the beginning and at the end of winter, it is rather difficult to establish the date of the onset of persistent frosts (Butorina and Krutovskaya, 1986). In this case, the determination of the date of the onset of winter coincides with the formation of the snow cover (Galakhov, 1959, cited in Shultz, 1981; Zhakov, 1984).
Nerusso-Desnyanskoe woodland is located in the west of Russia (center: 52.530250 ° N and 34.088253 ° E) in the southeastern part of the Bryansk region and is a separate physical and geographical region. The climate of woodland is moderately continental with warm summers and moderately cold winters (Natural zoning. 1975). In winter, it is dominated by