Bird Families

Long-tailed moth

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A small reptile that looks like a snake with legs - a yellow-bellied three-toed skink - is capable of both live birth and laying eggs. However, which of these ways the skink will produce offspring depends on the climate in the reptile's habitat.

For example, if the yellow-bellied skink (Saiphos equalis) lives in the warm coastal regions of New South Wales, then it lays eggs. And in the cold highlands of the same Australian state, the yellow-bellied skink is a viviparous reptile.

According to scientists, such a change in the methods of giving birth to cubs is understandable. In nature, viviparity is an advantage in cooler climates (typical of the northern highlands of New South Wales), as the embryo will take longer to develop in a warm womb. While babies hatched from eggs are more likely to survive in warm areas. We can say this is a vivid example of evolution. Scientists have even managed to find an "intermediate link" in this evolutionary chain of skinks. Biologists from the University of East Tennessee have found yellow-bellied skinks that hold eggs in their body longer than their relatives. The shell of the eggs of such skinks thinned until it turned into a dense membrane. Scientists believe that viviparous skinks originated from these individuals.

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External appearance.

The dimensions are relatively small. Body length 46-48 mm, forearm 39-41 mm, tail 47-49 mm, ear 12-13 mm, tragus 6-7 mm. The color of the fur on the back is brownish-brown, the underside of the body is grayish-brown. The membranes and auricles are dark brown. The pterygoid membrane is attached to the hind limb at the base of the outer toe. Unlike all other species of myotis of the domestic fauna, the length of the lower leg is equal to or exceeds 1/2 of the length of the forearm. The length of the tail is greater than or equal to the length of the body. There is a small epiblema at the base of the spur. The end of the muzzle is thickened. The ear is wide and short, extended forward along the head of the animal, does not protrude beyond the tip of the nose.

Spread.

East Asian view. The area is fragmented. Central Asia, Siberia: Novosibirsk Region, Altai, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Khakassia, Tuva and Cisbaikalia to the north up to 55-56 parallel, the Far East, southeastern China, Korea, Tibet, Burma [1, 3, 4]. In the region, single individuals were found in the vicinity of the cities of Zheleznogorsk, Divnogorsk and Krasnoyarsk, in the caves of the Karaulensky (Karaulnaya 2), Biryusinsky karst sites and in several caves of the Stolby reserve [5, 7, 10]. In the Shirinsky region of Khakassia, they were found in the caves of the Efremkinsky karst area.

Ecology and biology.

The lifestyle of the long-tailed bat is poorly understood. It is known that the species is associated with mixed forests and mountain taiga. Hunting bat of this species are found above water bodies. The animals fly out to hunt late, with the onset of dense twilight. Reproduction has not been studied. Winters in the caves of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.

Number and limiting factors.

It is extremely rare and in single specimens. On wintering grounds in caves, single individuals are noted. The largest colony, about 15 animals, was recorded in the Ledopadnaya cave. Natural enemies in wintering grounds are martens, rodents and insectivores.

The main reasons influencing the decrease in the number are: reduction and disappearance of natural shelters due to forest rejuvenation, changes in landscapes and microclimate, where the creation of reservoirs is of particular importance, when floodplain forests with overmature trees and coastal rocks with grottoes, niches and caves are flooded first of all. ,

urbanization of settlements, leading to a decrease in the number of wooden structures, forest fires, an increase in the popularity of speleotourism and, as a consequence, an increase in the disturbance of bats during wintering and a change in the microclimate of caves, which causes a premature waste of energy, reduces fertility and leads to the death of animals.

Security measures.

The species is listed in the Red Data Books of Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin and Novosibirsk regions. In the region, special security measures have not been developed. When organizing excursions, it is necessary to observe the following rules for visiting caves: do not smoke, do not light a fire, do not leave garbage (especially food), do not touch, let alone take with you discovered animals, use only electric lights for lighting. Caves with colonies of interregional importance should be declared natural monuments. Explanatory work among the population is important.

Sources of information. Red Data Book of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. 1. Kuzyakin, 1950, 2. Botvinkin, 2002, 3. Strelkov, 1963, 4. Kozhurina, 2009, 5. Khritankov et al., 1988, 6. Efanova, 2004, 7. Red Book of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, 2004, 8. Yudin et al., 1979, 9. Khritankov, 2001.

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The arctino moth Creatonotos gangis belongs to the Bear family (Arctiidae). Males of this species in their external appearance manage to combine the outlines of a butterfly, caterpillar and millipede at the same time.

Such an unusual appearance helps them find a mate, although they are circling the heads of the females not with their extraterrestrial beauty, but with the pheromones emitted. There are extraordinarily useful organs for this.

In the course of evolution, males acquired special hairy processes in the lower part of the abdomen, resembling huge legs. Such organs are called coremata. They consist of tubes with up to 3 thousand hair-shaped scales. Coremata is ejected from the end of the abdomen with the help of hemolymph and may have a length equal to the length of the wings. It produces up to 0.5 mg of hydroxydanaidal.

This substance serves both to attract individuals of the opposite sex and to scare away predators. Females are capable of smelling it at a distance of several kilometers.

The amount of hydroxydanaidal secreted by adults depends entirely on what food the caterpillars eat. The more pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the feed, the more actively males emit pheromones.

Caterpillars are omnivorous, but most actively eat the leaves of the common pomegranate (Punica granatum), thereby causing significant harm to farms. Their diet also includes green parts of rice, millet, soybeans, corn, coffee bushes, alfalfa, peanuts, sweet potatoes and sorghum.

Spread

The species was first described in 1763 by Carl Linnaeus under the name Phalaena gangis in the book Centuria Insectorum. It is distributed in Southeast Asia, in the west and northwest of Australia.

The arctinian moth Creatonotos gangis is found in the Australian states of Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia. The Asian population is observed in India, Indonesia, Thailand, China, Japan, Sri Lanka and New Guinea.

Description

The adults have brown forewings and white or beige hindwings with dark stripes. The wingspan is about 40 mm. The abdomen is red or ocher-pink, much less often yellowish or red-orange. Males have 4 coremata.

Yellow and round eggs are laid in rows of about 50 on the underside of the forage plants.Caterpillars are brown with yellow stripes and orange stripes on the back. Their body is covered with numerous hairs. The head is white.

The lifespan of the imago of the arctin moth Creatonotos gangis is about one month.

Habitat

New Guinea (Irian Jaya, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea) and the Jardine River at the very tip of Cape York in Queensland, Australia. Inhabits rivers, lakes and lagoons.

animal food (fish, seafood, insects, invertebrates)

Terrarium

These turtles are not demanding to keep and breed well in captivity. The water temperature in the aquaterrarium is 20-24 degrees. In summer, the turtle can be kept in outdoor ponds, if the temperature at night does not drop below + 17 ° C.

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